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BLOCK LANGUAGE

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الكلية كلية الهندسة/المسيب     القسم هندسة الطاقة     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة رسل داود سلمان الناصري       12/11/2018 10:49:37
1.1 Block language . It appears in such function as messages in most cases No sentences , consisting of noun , noun phrase or nominal clause in isolation in a verb which is needed because it is necessary for understanding the message that is furnished by Here are some examples: . the context

Entrance 50 mph limit
No entry no dogs without leash
Notional forecast Danger :falling rocks
English department the new York times

Fresh today pure lemon juice
For sale all the news that s fitte print

A comprehensive grammar of the English language the first luxury Bound collector s edition of Agha Christie s work to be a reliable in this country.
Some forms of block language have recognizable clause structures. These forms deviate from regular clause structures in omitting closed- class items of low in formation value, such as the finite forms of the verb( be) and the articles in other words that may be understood from the context.(Quirk et l,1985:845)
Newspaper Headlines 1.2
Newspaper headlines commonly contain block language because of pressure on space. They can generally be analyzed in terms of clause structure, though frequently scrutiny of the text below a head line obliges us to reinterpret the structure: MARRIES-PRIET [SVO STAR] FILM
OIL SPILL THREAT DECREA SING [SV]
PRESIDENT GALL. SFORGALM [SVA]
SHARE PRIGES NOW HIGHER THAN EVER [SAC]
STUDY LINKS DEATHS TO CROWDING IN PRISONS [SVOA]
THREE JOCKEYS HURT [SV]
CAMP HELPS ADULTS REDIS COVER WILDS [SVOC]
The regular structure of the last two examples, for instance, would be three jockeys are hurt and the camp helps adults rediscover the wilds. In addition to those mentioned above for block language in 11.45 certain other syntactic feathers are characteristics of newspaper head lines
1. The simple present is used instead of the present, perfect, which are used in other styles. for example in conversation) )
( Ibid:846)




Would be normal for recent news :
MEAT PRICE SRI SEACAIN [Meat price share risen again]
2.(To) is commonly used to express the future or a predicted arrangement (cf : be to, 345f):):
SENATOR TO SEEK REELECTION
[The senator is to seek reelection ]
3.Asyndeton (cf 13.1 ) is more common: WOMAN CLAIMS DRUG CAUSED CANCER, SUES( woman has climbed that a drug had caused her cancer and she has sued some body) ]
UTILITY POLE FALLS, KILLS PHONE COMPANY WORKER
[A utility pole has fallen and has killed a phone company worker ]
Intransitively: 4.Verbs that are generally transitive are used BRITISH VICTORY SURPRISES
[The British victory has surprised (?) Experts]
-Note -[a]the use of past caused in the head line /WOMAN/CLAIMS/DRUG CANCER SUES Follows the normal back shift rule in indirect speech(cf 14.30 substitution of present cause changes the time reference of the verb to habitual.
[b]the example in (4) is structurally ambiguous. In addition to the interpretation given above which presupposes a noun phrase as subject with surprises may be a noun head of the noun phrase that comprises the whole of the title.(ibid).

1.3 Personal letters, cables, diaries Block language is commonly used on past cards, where space is restricted and is also often used in informal personal notes .The first person pronoun and perhaps also an obvious auxiliary are often omitted: Sorry about Jane [I m sorry about the news about Jane] wish you were here [I wish you were here ] having wonderful time [I m having a wonderful time ] weather marvelous [The weather is marvelous ]
Know who I saw? [Do you know who I saw? ]Elliptical sentences like the last example are also common in informal conversation. The sender is likely to omit whatever can be
understood by the receiver from a knowledge of the situation :NO MONEY SEND HUNDERD [I have no money. Send me a hundred dollars]
NEGOTIATIONS PROGRESSING RETURNING END JULY STOP LETTER FOLLOWING.
[The negotiations are progressing well. I am returning all the end of July. A letter will follow this cable]
MANUSCRIPT RECEIVED CHANGES ACCEPTED PRINTING JANUARY [your man script has been received and your corrections have been accepted. Printing of the book will take place in January ]The language used in diaries/ is also abbreviated :Got up at 6 phoned Bill. Bill said he was ill, so had to cancel meeting.
Went to office instead. Worked till 12 on government contract

( Ibid :847)


Note [a] Stop is used on cables in place of punctuation to indicate the ends of sentences if there is a danger of ambiguity.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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